Arctic biodiversity is being degraded, but decisive action taken now can help sustain vast, relatively undisturbed ecosystems of tundra, mountains, fresh water and seas and the valuable services they provide.
Climate change is by far the most serious threat to Arctic biodiversity and exacerbates all other threats.
Many Arctic migratory species are threatened by overharvest and habitat alteration outside the Arctic, especially birds along the East Asian flyway.
Disturbance and habitat degradation can diminish Arctic biodiversity and the opportunities for Arctic residents and visitors to enjoy the benefits of ecosystem services.
Pollution from both long-range transport and local sources threatens the health of Arctic species and ecosystems.
There are currently few invasive alien species in the Arctic, but more are expected with climate change and increased human activity.
Overharvest was historically the primary human impact on many Arctic species, but sound management has successfully addressed this problem in most, but not all, cases.
Current knowledge of many Arctic species, ecosystems and their stressors is fragmentary, making detection and assessment of trends and their implications difficult for many aspects of Arctic biodiversity.
The challenges facing Arctic biodiversity are interconnected, requiring comprehensive solutions and international cooperation.